WORKERS’ WITH PRE-EXISTING MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Many Workers, prior to starting employment, have diagnosed medical illnesses.  There are a variety of forms of mental illness.

A study looked into mentally ill individuals in the workplace.  This study discusses how work impacts the mentally ill. This information is important with respect to workers’ compensation stress claims.

This article will discuss mental illness, forms of mental illness, work’s impact on mentally ill individuals, and what it means in the context of workers’ compensation stress claims.

What Is Mental Illness?

 Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities. Psychiatry.org. “ Mental illness is common. In a given year: nearly one in five (19 percent) U.S. adults experience some form of mental illness one in 24 (4.1 percent) has a serious mental illness, one in 12 (8.5 percent) has a diagnosable substance use disorder.” Psychiatry.org

There is a variety of mental illnesses.  These include anxiety disorder, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, dementia, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia,

What Is California Psychiatry Injury Causation Standard?

Labor Code Section 3208.3 provides the causation standard.  The causation burden per (b)(1) is that “In order to establish that a psychiatric injury is compensable, an employee shall demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that actual events of employment were predominant as to all causes combined of the psychiatric injury”  This means greater than 50 percent.

There is a lower standard in certain circumstances.  Per (b)(2), “… in the case of employees whose injuries resulted from being a victim of a violent act or from direct exposure to a significant violent act, the employee shall be required to demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that actual events of employment were a substantial cause of the injury.”  Substantial cause is at least 35 to 40 percent.

 Does Working Impact Mental Illness?

The study found that “Individuals with mental illness who are employed, compared to those who are unemployed, reported slightly higher levels of overall life satisfaction and psychophysiological health”. Granjard A, Mihailovic M, Amato C, et al. Occupation and life satisfaction among individuals with mental illness: the mediation role of self-reported psychophysiological health. PeerJ. 2021;9:e10829. Published 2021 Jan 29. doi:10.7717/peerj.10829.

How Does The Study Relate to Work Injuries?

Mentally ill individuals may have improved health and satisfaction when they are working.  Therefore, this improvement in their mental state should be factored into work injury causation analysis.   Also, it may have value with respect to permanent disability apportionment.

What Was in the Study’s Reporting?

The study reported that “, the mechanism underlying the relationship between having an occupation and life satisfaction implies that having an occupation enhances individuals’ perception of their own physical and psychological health, which in turn might increase their satisfaction with life” Granjard A, Mihailovic M, Amato C, et al. Occupation and life satisfaction among individuals with mental illness: the mediation role of self-reported psychophysiological health. PeerJ. 2021;9:e10829. Published 2021 Jan 29. doi:10.7717/peerj.10829.

What Is the Impact of Unemployment on Mental Illness?

The study noted that “[u]nemployment can lead to, among other things, diminished social status, financial debt, reduced self-esteem, and feelings of guilt. Most importantly, unemployment is significantly associated with psychiatric problems and approximately 37% higher risk of suicide (Milner, Page & Lamontagne, 2014).” Granjard A, Mihailovic M, Amato C, et al. Occupation and life satisfaction among individuals with mental illness: the mediation role of self-reported psychophysiological health. PeerJ. 2021;9:e10829. Published 2021 Jan 29. doi:10.7717/peerj.10829.

Note: This finding is important.  Mental health treatment and assessment of impairment during a pre-employment period is exacerbated by unemployment.  Thus, with no unemployment In combination with work, a Mentally Ill individual’s mental state may be significantly elevated prior to confronting work stress.

What If I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for over 28 years. Contact us today for more information.

MEN, DEPRESSION, SUICIDE, AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Stress impacts Men and Women differently.   Studies show there are differences in the workplace.  The findings are both significant and complicated.

This article will discuss depression, suicide, the differences between men and women, and the implications with respect to workers’ compensation cases.

What Is the Psychological Diagnosis of Depression?  

 Per the American Psychiatric Association, Depression (major depressive disorder) is an illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act.

”Depression symptoms can include: Feeling sad or having a depressed mood, Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed, Changes in appetite — weight loss or gain unrelated to dieting, Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, Loss of energy or increased fatigue, Increase in purposeless physical activity (e.g., inability to sit still, pacing, handwringing) or slowed movements or speech (these actions must be severe enough to be observable by others), Feeling worthless or guilty, Difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions, Thoughts of death or suicide.” APA

A depression diagnosis requires these symptoms last for an extended period of time. “Symptoms must last at least two weeks and must represent a change in your previous level of functioning for a diagnosis of depression.” APA

Which Sex Is Diagnosed Most with Depression?

 Studies show that women are diagnosed at twice the rate as men. “[c]omparatively, in Western countries, men are formally diagnosed with depression at approximately half the rate of women” (Kessler et al., 2005Wilhelm, Parker, Geerligs, & Wedgwood, 2008).” 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/1557988313490786

Note: These findings raise questions.  There is the issue of “men’s reluctance to express concerns about their mental health and reticence to seek professional health care (Emslie, Ridge, Ziebland, & Hunt, 2006Sharpe & Heppner, 1991Winkler et al., 2006).” 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/1557988313490786

In other words, men may not seek mental health treatment. Thus, there would be fewer depression diagnosis for men.

Is There a Connection Between Depression and Suicide?

Severe depression can … significantly increase the risk for suicide.  (Emslie et al., 2006Kessler et al., 2005Wilhelm et al., 2008World Health Organization, n.d.), 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/1557988313490786

Which Sex is at Most Risk of Suicide?

Men have been found to have higher rates of suicide. “[S]uicide rates are approximately four times higher in Western men than in women (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012Hawton & van Heeringen, 2009Levi et al., 2003Moller-Leimkuhler, 2003Rihmer, Belso, & Kiss, 2002Statistics Canada, 2012a2012bWasserman, 2000Wolfgang & Zoltan, 2007).” 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/1557988313490786

Thus, there is the question as to why men’s suicide rates are higher when their depression rates are lower.

Are There Suicidal Issues Related to Occupation?

The issue of suicide has multiple issues.  There is suicidal thought or ideation.  There is the act of suicide.

Studies have found high suicide rates in male-dominated workgroups. This included manual workers, farming, military and nursing.” 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/1557988313490786

Suicidal ideation is also an issue for men. Being a failed breadwinner can have an impact on suicidal thoughts. “Linkages between men’s work, depression, and suicide have also been described. Self-perceptions of being a “failed breadwinner” led older men with a history of depression to think about suicide (Oliffe, Han, Ogrodniczuk, Phillips, & Roy, 2011), whereas some middle-aged men countered suicidal ideations by focusing on work as a means of providing for their family (Oliffe, Ogrodniczuk, Bottorff, Johnson, & Hoyak, 2012. 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/1557988313490786

Is There a Connection Between Depression and Retirement?

Depressed workers are more likely to retire than nondepressed workers (Doshi, Cen, & Polsky, 2008) 1. Oliffe JL, Han CSE. Beyond Workers’ Compensation: Men’s Mental Health In and Out of Work. American Journal of Men’s Health. January 2014:45-53. doi:10.1177/155798831349078

What Does This Information Mean with Respect to Workers’ Compensation Claims?

These studies impact workers’ compensation cases in that they provide insight into the injured worker.

There studies show that there is some uniqueness for a man to file a claim for depression. These studies provide “red flags” as to certain occupations that men perform and their risk for suicide.  These studies may give some insight to employers as to whether depressed male  injured workers are going retire or return to work.  These studies show that working may assist a man’s mental state.

What If I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

 

JANITORS AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

A large part of the labor market is the occupation of Professional Cleaners.  They are also referred to as Commercial Janitors.  The Janitorial Occupation is susceptible for a variety of work injuries and occupational illnesses. Janitorial work presents unique risks for work injuries for those within the field.

This article will discuss Janitors, Janitorial Tasks, Industrial injuries and Occupational Illnesses that are prevalent within the Occupation, and the barriers that Janitors have with respect to filing claims.

What are Janitors?

Janitors perform a variety of maintenance tasks a variety of facilities. They use a multitude of tools and chemicals to perform their jobs.  They can engage in a large variety of repetitive physical tasks, ie. sweeping or mopping.

Janitors can work at institutions such as schools, hospitals, parks, and prisons.

Janitors can work in commercial buildings such as shopping malls, and they can work in residential properties.

What Are Janitor’s Risks of Industrial Injury?

Each type of facility can present unique risks of work injury for Janitors.

For example, hospitals and medical facilities can have significant amounts of potentially infectious biological material present.  Schools can have issues relating to mold exposure.

Further, the physical activities of being a Janitor may cause work injury.

What Types of Injuries Do Janitors Sustain?

There are a variety of work-related orthopedic injuries. These injuries relate, in part, due to the fact that “Janitorial work is repetitive and requires bending, twisting, and other motions that can lead to or exacerbate musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis” Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data as an Occupational Health Profile Washington State Janitors, 2011 to 2017 Anderson, Naomi J. MPH; Marcum, Jennifer L. DrPH Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 2019 – Volume 61 – Issue 9 – p 747-753 doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001652

Also, Janitors may sustain respiratory injuries relating to the cleaning chemicals that they use.  Further, they may sustain dermatological injuries due to wet work.

What Are the Injury Rates for Janitors?

In a Washington State Study, it was noted that “[t]he prevalence of self-reported work-related injuries in the past year was higher than that of all others …. Analyses of WC data indicate that work-related injury risk may be higher for the industry group containing Janitors than other industries2 overall and in several injury types, with women at particularly high risk.” Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data as an Occupational Health Profile Washington State Janitors, 2011 to 2017 Anderson, Naomi J. MPH; Marcum, Jennifer L. DrPH

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 2019 – Volume 61 – Issue 9 – p 747-753 doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001652

Thus, the workers’ compensation industry both has a concern over janitorial injuries as well as an understanding that work injuries are common.  Thus, Risk Management handling Janitorial claims will work hard to manage these claims.  This can be done with respect to reporting requirements.  It can also be done with respect to return to work issues which can include modified work.

Do Janitors Have Emotional Issues?

Yes. Janitors, in the study, reported “being diagnosed with a depressive disorder ..significantly higher and has been reported previously.    Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data as an Occupational Health Profile Washington State Janitors, 2011 to 2017 Anderson, Naomi J. MPH; Marcum, Jennifer L. DrPH Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 2019 – Volume 61 – Issue 9 – p 747-753 doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001652

While this finding did not address work-relatedness, it is possible that the depressive disorder may be in party work-related in nature and give rise to a workers’ compensation claim.

Can Shift Work Impact Janitors?

Yes. Shiftwork has been connected to various medical conditions.

Shiftwork can cause issues of inadequate sleep.  Inadequate sleep can lead to other health issues.

Do Janitors Have Barriers in Filing Workers’ Compensation Claims?

Yes. There is some concern as to whether all janitor work injury claims are filed.  As noted in the study, “[l]ow-wage, immigrant, and/or Hispanic worker populations, including many Janitors, may also not be aware of the WC system (or how to navigate the system, if they lack internet access) or of their right to seek medical care for an occupational injury or illness. Janitors may also face barriers to reporting an injury to their employer, such as fear of consequences.    Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data as an Occupational Health Profile Washington State Janitors, 2011 to 2017 Anderson, Naomi J. MPH; Marcum, Jennifer L. DrPH Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 2019 – Volume 61 – Issue 9 – p 747-753 doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001652

If a Janitor is concerned about their employment situation if they claim a work injury, it is important for them to seek legal counsel to discuss their concerns to make a determination as to whether they should file the claim.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Workplace Violence is a serious concern in California.  Some of the most infamous workplace violence episodes have occurred in California.  This includes the San Ysidro McDonalds shootings, the Piper Tech shootings, and the San Bernardino terrorist shootings.

Not all workplace violence involves fatalities. There are many workplace violence events of a non-fatal variety.   These violence acts are significant in the workers’ compensation area because workers who are either injured in the incident or suffer emotional injury as a result of witnessing the events.  These effected workers are entitled to seek medical treatment and disability benefits through the workers’ compensation system.

There was a recent study of interest which provides insight to workers with respect to these incidents.

This article will discuss non-fatal workplace violence, how it interacts with the workers’ compensation system and the rights that an Injured Worker has relating to those incidents.

What Were the Non-Fatal Workplace Violence Studied?

In a recent study, non-fatal violence in the workplace was investigated.   In the study, the types of crime included rape/sexual assault (including attempted rape, sexual attack with serious/minor assault, sexual assault without injury, unwanted sexual contact without force, and verbal threat of rape/sexual assault); robbery (including attempted robbery); aggravated assault (attack or attempted attack with a weapon, regardless of whether or not an injury occurred, and attack without a weapon when serious injury resulted, and including aggravated assault with injury, attempted aggravated assault with weapon, and threatened assault with weapon); simple assault (attack without a weapon resulting in no or minor injury, and including simple assault with injury and assault without weapon without injury); and verbal threat of assault.” Siegel, M. Johnson, CY, Lawson CC, Ridenour M Hartley D. Nonfatal Violent Workplace Crime Characteristics and Rates by Occupation- United States, 2007-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69: 324-328.

What Are the Frequency Rates of the Different Forms of Violence?

The most frequently reported type of crime was threat of assault (44%), followed by simple assault (37%), aggravated assault (13%), rape/sexual assault (3%), and robbery (3%). Siegel, M. Johnson, CY, Lawson CC, Ridenour M Hartley D. Nonfatal Violent Workplace Crime Characteristics and Rates by Occupation- United States, 2007-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69: 324-328.

Note: workplace violence does not necessary translate into matters of physical harm to workers. Threats of assault can cause psychological injury or give rise to physiological stress responses such as a heart attack. Likewise, witnessing these various events might give rise to such problems as well.

Are the Violence Rates Different Between Occupations?

Yes. In the study, “[d]uring 2007–2010, occupations with the highest rates of violent workplace crimes were Protective services (e.g., first responders) (101 crimes per 1,000 workers); Community and social services (19); Healthcare practitioners and technicians (17), Healthcare support occupations (17); Education, training, and library occupations (eight); and Transportation and material moving occupations (seven.)” Siegel, M. Johnson, CY, Lawson CC, Ridenour M Hartley D. Nonfatal Violent Workplace Crime Characteristics and Rates by Occupation- United States, 2007-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69:324-328.

Note: It is interesting to note which areas of the workforce in which the acts occur.  It appears that the key factor is the significant contact that workers have with the public.

Are All Workplace Violence Episodes a Valid Work Injury?

No.  There are several issues that can come up.  First, there is the initial aggressor rule.  Second, if the alleged criminal has a relationship to the victim, there may be some issue of controversy as to whether it was a workplace event versus an event that happened at the workplace.  Legal analysis would be recommended in those circumstances.

Is there a Difference Physical Injuries versus Psychological Injuries?

Yes. Psychological Injuries have thresholds that must be met in order to prevail.

The Labor Code Section 3208.3 provides lower burdens for violent acts.  It is noted in the section that “in the case of employees whose injuries resulted from being a victim of a violent act or from direct exposure to a significant violent act, the employee shall be required to demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that actual events of employment were a substantial cause of the injury.”  Further, ““substantial cause” means at least 35 to 40 percent of the causation from all sources combined.”

Further, there are other sections that may assist on a psychiatric claim.  They, however, require a factual analysis. Therefore, they may be relevant but will not be discussed within this article.

Additionally, for certain safety and law enforcement officers, there is a post-traumatic stress disorder presumption.  Click here for an article discussing it.

Are There Any Other Sources of Benefits?

Yes. The State of California has a Victims of Crime Program which can also provide benefits in some circumstances.  Click here for an article discussing it.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

 

NURSES IN THE WORKPLACE SUFFERING FROM STRESS: BULLYING IN THE WORKPLACE, PSYCHIATRIC INJURY AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Nursing is one of the most difficult and demanding professions in the world. It is also one of the most important.  Nurses confront life and death situations on a daily basis.

Nurses work with Doctors who are some of the brightest and most difficult individuals on the planet.  These Doctors have demanding schedules and responsibilities which impact on their ability to work with others.

Nurses work with other Nurses who are confronted with the same stressors and responsibilities.  At times, they can be in conflict with each other.

Nurses also work with patients who may have emotional issues that are either pre-existing or are relating to their medical problem at issue.   Also, they may have anger issues relating to their perceived mistreatment at the facility. Nurses also work with patient’s family members who are emotionally involved with the patient’s well- being. They too may be upset at their perceived mistreatment of their beloved family member.

Nurses finally work with medical institutions which have rules and regulations that they need to be in compliance with concerning their operations.

With respect to these numerous interactions, some of these interactions have been viewed as unacceptable and have been labeled as “bullying.”

“Nurse Bullying” has been subject o was subject to a study which found interesting results.  This article will discuss the nature of nurse bullying, how nurse bullying should be analyzed within a workers’ compensation setting, and what a nurse should do if they are subjected to stress.

Even If I am not a Nurse, Why Should I Be Concerned about Nurse Bullying?

“Workplace bullying has also been acknowledged as a threat to patient outcomes and the delivery of quality of patient care, as well as the erosion of personal health and professional wellbeing [91314]. Excellence in patient care flourishes in an environment built on open communication and respectful professional relationships. An environment that condones bullying perpetrates destruction of professional communication.”  Gaffney DA, Demarco RF, Hofmeyer A, Vessey JA, Budin WC. Making things right: nurses’ experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory. Nurs Res Pract. 2012;2012:243210. doi:10.1155/2012/243210

What Is Bullying in the Nursing Profession?

Individuals studying bullying characterized the situation as on in which there is a power imbalance.   These interactions can have serious effects on the organization. Yoo, S.Y.; Ahn, H.Y. Nurses’ Workplace Bullying Experiences, Responses, and Ways of Coping. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7052.

Who Was Responsible for the Bullying?

In the study, there are many types of bullying offenders, including patients, caregivers, doctors, and nurses. Of these, bullying most frequently occurs among nurses and is particularly committed by a colleague rather than by a manager. Yoo, S.Y.; Ahn, H.Y. Nurses’ Workplace Bullying Experiences, Responses, and Ways of Coping. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7052.

Note: for workers’ compensation purposes, the employment position of the offender is very important

Bullying has also been defined in other studies.

“Bullying goes by many names: workplace aggression, indirection aggression, social or relational aggression, horizontal (lateral) violence, and workplace violence. It has become so popularized in the press; bullying is often, mistakenly, used as an overarching concept. There is a tendency to use many of these terms interchangeably [8]. Bullying is different from horizontal violence in that a real or perceived power differential between the instigator and recipient must be present [15]. Some of the most recent literature suggests that all of these behaviors exist on a conceptual continuum of workplace victimization [3].” Gaffney DA, Demarco RF, Hofmeyer A, Vessey JA, Budin WC. Making things right: nurses’ experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory. Nurs Res Pract. 2012;2012:243210. doi:10.1155/2012/243210

Is Bullying the Same as Job Stress?

Those researching this have distinguished it from ordinary job stress.  It is something different from the day to day social stresses or poor management.

What Types of Bullying are Going on?

Bullying has been described in situations where the nurse is new to the area,  in situations where the nurse witnesses mistreatment of others, in situations in which they are singled out for public censure or humiliation, in situation in which there are constantly being interrupted, situations in which they are not in the social clique and they are subject to juvenile-like behavior, situations in which they feel they are being punished with disciplinary  action or threats,   Gaffney DA, Demarco RF, Hofmeyer A, Vessey JA, Budin WC. Making things right: nurses’ experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory. Nurs Res Pract. 2012;2012:243210. doi:10.1155/2012/243210

What are the Consequences of Bullying?

Nurses being subjected to bullying is a societal concern.  If this bullying impacts patient medical treatment, it must be addressed in those terms in addition to the health concerns of the Nurse effected.

It is reported that “[n]urses bullied at the workplace may complain of mental symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and fear, as well as physical symptoms, such as fatigue, headaches, and palpitations. They are also more susceptible to burnout and turnover intention and have lower levels of organizational commitment and nursing productivity. Yoo, S.Y.; Ahn, H.Y. Nurses’ Workplace Bullying Experiences, Responses, and Ways of Coping. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7052.

If a Nurse Is Having Medical Problems as a Result of Bullying, What Should They Do?

First, seek medical attention to treat your medical problems.  Second, seek assistance through your company’s Employee Assistance Program if one is available. Third, make a consultation with a lawyer as to whether there is some legal action that can be pursued.

There are two areas of law which should be explored.  Workers’ Compensation and Employment Law are two areas which should be analyzed with respect to the bullying.

If a Workers’ Compensation Claim is pursued, the Nurse can claim monetary compensation in the form of temporary disability benefits, permanent disability benefits, medical care, and vocational rehabilitation benefits.

What Are the Legal Barriers for Workers’ Compensation Psychiatric Claims?

With all psychiatric claims of work injury, a detailed factual analysis must be made.  With respect to bullying, there are issues of length of employment and whether the events causing the stress where personnel actions.  Bullying claims are viewed in the same light as all other psychiatric claims.

Labor Code Section 3208.3 provides the threshold requirements for psychiatric claims.

In general, an employee shall demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that actual events of employment were predominant as to all causes combined of the psychiatric injury.

Also, in general, there is also a six-month employment requirement.

Also, “[n]o compensation under this division shall be paid by an employer for a psychiatric injury if the injury was substantially caused by a lawful, nondiscriminatory, good faith personnel action.”

Note: Bullying can involve different players.   Some of them supervisors. Supervisors’ actions can be viewed as personnel action. Therefore, there may be “good faith personnel action” defenses that insurance Companies can be raise to defeat such a claim. Therefore, there is no guarantee that bullying cases will be accepted as a valid work injury claim.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

 

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