EVEN TREATERS GET INJURED AT WORK: OCCUPATIONAL AND PHYSICAL THERAPISTS SUSTAINING INDUSTRIAL INJURIES:  MEDICAL PROVIDERS AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Occupational and Physical Therapists play a large role in helping Injured Workers recover from their industrial injuries.  In doing so, however, Occupational and Physical Therapists may be placing themselves at risk for sustaining a work injury. More specifically, both Occupational and Physical Therapist’s work activities can place them at risk for sustaining musculoskeletal disorders. These musculoskeletal disorders can include back problems, shoulder problems, and wrist problems.

The article will discuss Occupational and Physical Therapists, what activities they perform on the job that may be injurious to them, and the rates of injuries that occur for Occupational and Physical Therapists.

What is an Occupational Therapist (OT)?

Per the American Occupational Therapy Association, “occupational therapists …help people… participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities (occupations.)”

OT Programs can include “an individualized evaluation, during which the client/family and occupational therapist determine the person’s goals, [a] customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities and reach the goals, and an outcomes evaluation to ensure that the goals are being met and/or make changes to the intervention plan.”

What is a Physical Therapist (PT)?

Per the American Physical Therapy Association, “[p]hysical therapists are movement experts who improve quality of life through prescribed exercise, hands-on care, and patient education.”

“Physical therapists examine each person and then develops a treatment plan to improve their ability to move, reduce or manage pain, restore function, and prevent disability.”

What is the Difference Between an Occupational and Physical Therapists?

The Occupational Therapist focuses on the patient’s ability to perform work-related functions.  The Physical Therapist focuses on physical activities in general.

What Are The Work Activities That Are Injurious to OTs and PTs?

Transfers/Lifts and manual therapy have been found to be associated with musculoskeletal disorders. “Darragh AR, Campo M, King P. Work-related activities associated with injury in occupational and physical therapists. Work. 2012;42(3):373-84. doi: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1430. PMID: 22523031; PMCID: PMC3839086.  These activities have been found to impact the lumbar spine.  Supra.

Patient handling activities include (transfers, repositioning and patient lifting. Supra.

Manual therapy includes soft tissue work, joint mobilization, and orthopedic techniques. Supra.

Manual Therapy was found also found as a risk factor consistent risk factor for both injuries as well as gradual onset of WSMDs. Supra.  In workers’ compensation terms, this would be considered as a cumulative trauma injury.

With Respect to Musculoskeletal Disorders? Is There Any Difference Between OTs and PTs?

No. “Occupational (OTs) and physical therapists (PTs) have substantial and similar rates of work-related injury (WRI), musculoskeletal pain and musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD)” Darragh AR, Campo M, King P. Work-related activities associated with injury in occupational and physical therapists. Work. 2012;42(3):373-84. doi: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1430. PMID: 22523031; PMCID: PMC3839086.

“Darragh et al. reported an annual WRI incidence rate among OTs and PTs of 16.5 and 16.9 per 100 full-time workers, respectively.” Darragh AR, Campo M, King P. Work-related activities associated with injury in occupational and physical therapists. Work. 2012;42(3):373-84. doi: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1430. PMID: 22523031; PMCID: PMC3839086.

What Are Injury Rates for Activities?  What Do Therapists Think Are the Causes of Their Injuries?

“Manual therapy and transfers/lifts accounted for more than half of all injuries (54.0%), across all practice areas.” Supra.  “Manual therapy was the greatest proportion of injuries to the wrist and hand (69.1%).” Supra.  “Transfer and lifting activities were associated with 26.6% of injuries Over half of these injuries were to the low back (53.0%), followed by the shoulder (19.7%) and the head/neck (18.2%).” Supra.   “Other activities associated with injury included environmental and equipment interactions (10.9%), multiple activities (6.5%) and patient falls (5.7%)”

What Do Therapists Think of How They Get Hurt?

Therapists opine that force, awkward posture, repetitive motion, sustained posture, and fatigue were factors contributing to those type of injuries.  Supra.

For wrist and hand injuries, therapists opine that repetitive motion (experienced during joint mobilizations and range of motion activities), force (experienced during range of motion, soft tissue work, and joint mobilizations), awkward posture and sustained posture were factors contributing to those type of injuries. Supra.

For transfer and lifting activities, opined that “these injuries occurred both gradually because of repeated performance of transfers over time and more suddenly when a patient behaved in an unexpected way (grabbed the therapist, stumbled, or moved in an unexpected direction.) The majority of therapist identified force (72.7%;48/66), including overexertion and lifting, and awkward posture (54.5%; 36/66) as the primary contributing factors to their transfer injuries.” Supra.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

HIGH-HEELED SHOES AND MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES AT WORK: CLOTHING APPAREL CAUSING ORTHOPEDIC INJURIES: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

On the Job, Workers can get injured as a result of their attire. High-Heeled Shoes have long been considered as a possible source of work place injuries.  Injuries from High-Heeled Shoes can occur in a variety of ways and impact a multitude of parts of the body.

This article will discuss High-Heeled Shoes, the theories of industrial causation of High-Heeled Shoe related injuries, and injuries caused by High-Heeled Shoes.

What Are High Heeled Shoes?

High-Heeled Shoes are footwear in which the heel is farther off of the ground in comparison with the toe. They are considered aesthetically appealing and are commonly worn in professional settings.   As a result, many women wear them in the workplace. The alternative type of shoe is called a “flat.”

What Types of Medical Conditions Can High Heeled Shoes Cause?

There are High Heeled Shoe injuries which relate to those wearing them.  With these type of shoes,  there are issues concerning falls, issues concerning the impact on the prolonged use on the foot, and issues concerning the biomechanics of gait on other parts of the body.  Thus, physical injuries from shoes can range from toe to head.  Specific conditions caused by the footwear usage include hallux valgus and osteoarthritis.  Barnish MS, Barnish J High-heeled shoes and musculoskeletal injuries: a narrative systematic review BMJ Open 2016;6:e010053. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010053

Many pathologies are associated with wearing high heel shoes mainly in the lower extremity including blisters, callosities, heel spur, bunions (hallux valgus) in the feet which is mainly due to the altered ankle joint axis and altered arch angle, pain in the calf muscle, knee and hip joint. Younus SM, Ali T, Memon WA, Qazi A, Ismail F. High heel shoes; outcome of wearing in young generation: a cross sectional study. Professional Med J 2014;21(4): 798-803.

Also,  similarly the spine is also adversely affected resulting in back pain which is mainly due to exaggerated spinal flexion. Younus SM, Ali T, Memon WA, Qazi A, Ismail F. High heel shoes; outcome of wearing in young generation: a cross sectional study. Professional Med J 2014;21(4): 798-803.

There has been study concerning women wearing high heel shoes in department store in which hallux valgus deformity was found more common in those workers than those who wore flat shoes. Soemarko DS, Rahmasari F, Kamal AF, Cahayadi SD. Hallux valgus among sales promotion women wearing high heels in a department store. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. January 2019. doi:10.1177/2309499019828456  It was noted that “The long duration of work with wearing high heels puts more pressure on the metatarsal, which increases the risk of HV” Supra.

What is the Legal Theory That Makes High Heel Injuries Industrial?

The legal theory behind most High Heel injury claims is that workers’ compensation is a “no-fault” system. Thus, a person’s decision to wear high heels at work is not necessarily of import.  The issue is more that the high heels were in fact worn and work and it was the wearing at work which was the cause of the physical condition.  Thus, the work activities which wearing the shoes is of import. See US Airways vs. WCAB (2002) 67 C.C.C. 1243 (writ denied.) Applicant was found to have left foot injury due to continuous trauma of having to wear high heels on the job. Applicant had a medical-legal opinion that supported it.

Secondary High Heel Injuries? Bystander Injuries?

Besides injuries to the workers wearing high heels, This can include being injured as a result of a first party fall, being stepped on by a high heel shoe, and being assaulted by a pair of high heels. Barnish MS, Barnish J High-heeled shoes and musculoskeletal injuries: a narrative systematic review BMJ Open 2016;6:e010053. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010053

What Would be the Controversies in Such Injuries?

In matters involving High Heels, case analysis will focus on the usage of the shoes in the workplace.   If a cumulative trauma injury is alleged, an analysis will be done as to the nature and extent of the shoe usage in the workplace.   Likewise, there will be an inquiry as to the nature and extent of the usage of the shoes outside of work.

What Is I am Having Problems?

It is recommended that you seek medical attention.  An opinion indicating that the usage of the shoes in the workplace is a causative factor towards one’s musculoskeletal disorder, then a workers’ compensation clam should be considered.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

 

 

FIREFIGHTERS AND THEIR MOST REPORTED CAUSE OF INJURY: OVEREXERTION, WORK INJURIES FOR SAFETY OFFICERS, AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Firefighters play a vital role in society.  Each Firefighter represents a significant investment by a community.  Therefore, there is significant study into how and why Firefighters are injured.  Researchers use the term overexertion to describe mechanisms of injury.

This type of research is important for Firefighters.  When a Firefighter is injured and the mechanism of injury is of a certain nature, there will be a certain reaction from Management and Risk Management.   If Management and Risk Management is aware that a particular type of injury is common, it may be viewed with less scrutiny. Likewise, Firefighters claiming injury that are unique in nature may be subject to greater scrutiny.

This article will discuss overexertion, the results of a recent study and what Firefighter should be concerned about concerning the results of the study.

What Is Overexertion?

The Study noted that   “according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the term “overexertion” is sometimes used synonymously or interchangeably with “bodily reaction” Strains can be defined as injury to the muscle or musculotendinous joint, and sprains are an injury to the ligament.” Firefighter Overexertion: A Continuing Problem Found in an Analysis of Non-Fatal Injury Among Career Firefighters Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217906 Published: 28 October 2020

Note: essentially, overexertion injuries are orthopedics injuries. For example, back injuries which are usually lumbar sprains/strains, or cervical sprains/strains.   It can include injuries to both the upper and lower extremities such as shoulder sprains/strains and knee sprains/strains.

Why Is Overexertion Injuries Significant With Respect to Workers’ Compensation?

Per the Study, Overexertion.. is the leading cause of non-fatal injury across ten industry categories and accounts for 35% of non-fatal injuries and illnesses resulting in days away from work per year.” .” Firefighter Overexertion: A Continuing Problem Found in an Analysis of Non-Fatal Injury Among Career Firefighters Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217906 Published: 28 October 2020

Work Injuries can be costly to both private and government positions.  The study noted that the “resultant sprain and strain injuries cost U.S. businesses and organizations an estimated USD 13.8 billion a year in direct costs, which include medical and lost-wage payments.” .” Firefighter Overexertion: A Continuing Problem Found in an Analysis of Non-Fatal Injury Among Career Firefighters Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217906 Published: 28 October 2020

Note: with respect to any industry, including Fire Departments, there is a need to contain risk management costs by having injury reduction.

What Did the Overexertion Study Tells Us About Firefighter Injuries?

The study found that despite the fact that the occupation deals with fire and its destructive properties to a human body, it is the overexertion which is the greatest source of injury to for firefighting personnel. .” Firefighter Overexertion: A Continuing Problem Found in an Analysis of Non-Fatal Injury Among Career Firefighters Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217906 Published: 28 October 2020

Note: with respect to this study, it important to note that the Departments appear to do an excellent job with respect to safety equipment to prevent fire and burn-related injuries.   Thus, orthopedic injuries then emerge as the most common source of injury.

Another study provided additional data of interest. “Leading injury events were fires and explosions (36%) and overexertion and bodily reactions (20%). A majority (38%) of injuries occurred during firefighting activities, 7% occurred during training, and 7% occurred during patient care. Sprains and strains accounted for the largest proportion of injuries in all three of these activities: 28% firefighting activities, 32% training, and 36% patient care. Nonfatal Injuries to Firefighters Treating in U.S. Emergency Departments, 2003-2014, Suzanne M. Marsch, MPA, Melody Gwilliam MPH Srinivas Konda MPH Hope M.Tiesman PhD Rita Fahy Phd, American Journal of Preventative Medicine Volume 55, Issue 3, September 2018, P. 353-360.

Does Age Have an Impact with Respect to What Injuries Firefighters Have?

Yes.  The study found that younger firefighters have different injuries than older firefighters.  The study found that  “FF personnel aged less than 39 experienced higher levels of injury as a result of fires and explosions, transportation incidents, and contact with objects and equipment, relative to those aged 40 and above. Those aged 40 and above experienced falls, slips and trips, as well as overexertion and bodily reactions at a higher prevalence than their younger counterparts.” .” Firefighter Overexertion: A Continuing Problem Found in an Analysis of Non-Fatal Injury Among Career Firefighters Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217906 Published: 28 October 2020

What will Department Do about This?

The study recommended a focus on fitness and ergonomics.  Firefighter Overexertion: A Continuing Problem Found in an Analysis of Non-Fatal Injury Among Career Firefighters Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217906 Published: 28 October 2020.

Note: the challenges to this issue is that a significant amount of firefighting activity is performed in conditions in which ergonomics may not be able to be practiced.  Thus, this is a significant challenge.  Also, in the other study, overexertion injuries appear to be spread about evenly across the many task performed.  Therefore, an overall approach may be taken by Departments as opposed to any particular job task.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Workplace Violence is a serious concern in California.  Some of the most infamous workplace violence episodes have occurred in California.  This includes the San Ysidro McDonalds shootings, the Piper Tech shootings, and the San Bernardino terrorist shootings.

Not all workplace violence involves fatalities. There are many workplace violence events of a non-fatal variety.   These violence acts are significant in the workers’ compensation area because workers who are either injured in the incident or suffer emotional injury as a result of witnessing the events.  These effected workers are entitled to seek medical treatment and disability benefits through the workers’ compensation system.

There was a recent study of interest which provides insight to workers with respect to these incidents.

This article will discuss non-fatal workplace violence, how it interacts with the workers’ compensation system and the rights that an Injured Worker has relating to those incidents.

What Were the Non-Fatal Workplace Violence Studied?

In a recent study, non-fatal violence in the workplace was investigated.   In the study, the types of crime included rape/sexual assault (including attempted rape, sexual attack with serious/minor assault, sexual assault without injury, unwanted sexual contact without force, and verbal threat of rape/sexual assault); robbery (including attempted robbery); aggravated assault (attack or attempted attack with a weapon, regardless of whether or not an injury occurred, and attack without a weapon when serious injury resulted, and including aggravated assault with injury, attempted aggravated assault with weapon, and threatened assault with weapon); simple assault (attack without a weapon resulting in no or minor injury, and including simple assault with injury and assault without weapon without injury); and verbal threat of assault.” Siegel, M. Johnson, CY, Lawson CC, Ridenour M Hartley D. Nonfatal Violent Workplace Crime Characteristics and Rates by Occupation- United States, 2007-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69: 324-328.

What Are the Frequency Rates of the Different Forms of Violence?

The most frequently reported type of crime was threat of assault (44%), followed by simple assault (37%), aggravated assault (13%), rape/sexual assault (3%), and robbery (3%). Siegel, M. Johnson, CY, Lawson CC, Ridenour M Hartley D. Nonfatal Violent Workplace Crime Characteristics and Rates by Occupation- United States, 2007-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69: 324-328.

Note: workplace violence does not necessary translate into matters of physical harm to workers. Threats of assault can cause psychological injury or give rise to physiological stress responses such as a heart attack. Likewise, witnessing these various events might give rise to such problems as well.

Are the Violence Rates Different Between Occupations?

Yes. In the study, “[d]uring 2007–2010, occupations with the highest rates of violent workplace crimes were Protective services (e.g., first responders) (101 crimes per 1,000 workers); Community and social services (19); Healthcare practitioners and technicians (17), Healthcare support occupations (17); Education, training, and library occupations (eight); and Transportation and material moving occupations (seven.)” Siegel, M. Johnson, CY, Lawson CC, Ridenour M Hartley D. Nonfatal Violent Workplace Crime Characteristics and Rates by Occupation- United States, 2007-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69:324-328.

Note: It is interesting to note which areas of the workforce in which the acts occur.  It appears that the key factor is the significant contact that workers have with the public.

Are All Workplace Violence Episodes a Valid Work Injury?

No.  There are several issues that can come up.  First, there is the initial aggressor rule.  Second, if the alleged criminal has a relationship to the victim, there may be some issue of controversy as to whether it was a workplace event versus an event that happened at the workplace.  Legal analysis would be recommended in those circumstances.

Is there a Difference Physical Injuries versus Psychological Injuries?

Yes. Psychological Injuries have thresholds that must be met in order to prevail.

The Labor Code Section 3208.3 provides lower burdens for violent acts.  It is noted in the section that “in the case of employees whose injuries resulted from being a victim of a violent act or from direct exposure to a significant violent act, the employee shall be required to demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that actual events of employment were a substantial cause of the injury.”  Further, ““substantial cause” means at least 35 to 40 percent of the causation from all sources combined.”

Further, there are other sections that may assist on a psychiatric claim.  They, however, require a factual analysis. Therefore, they may be relevant but will not be discussed within this article.

Additionally, for certain safety and law enforcement officers, there is a post-traumatic stress disorder presumption.  Click here for an article discussing it.

Are There Any Other Sources of Benefits?

Yes. The State of California has a Victims of Crime Program which can also provide benefits in some circumstances.  Click here for an article discussing it.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

 

NURSES IN THE WORKPLACE SUFFERING FROM STRESS: BULLYING IN THE WORKPLACE, PSYCHIATRIC INJURY AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Nursing is one of the most difficult and demanding professions in the world. It is also one of the most important.  Nurses confront life and death situations on a daily basis.

Nurses work with Doctors who are some of the brightest and most difficult individuals on the planet.  These Doctors have demanding schedules and responsibilities which impact on their ability to work with others.

Nurses work with other Nurses who are confronted with the same stressors and responsibilities.  At times, they can be in conflict with each other.

Nurses also work with patients who may have emotional issues that are either pre-existing or are relating to their medical problem at issue.   Also, they may have anger issues relating to their perceived mistreatment at the facility. Nurses also work with patient’s family members who are emotionally involved with the patient’s well- being. They too may be upset at their perceived mistreatment of their beloved family member.

Nurses finally work with medical institutions which have rules and regulations that they need to be in compliance with concerning their operations.

With respect to these numerous interactions, some of these interactions have been viewed as unacceptable and have been labeled as “bullying.”

“Nurse Bullying” has been subject o was subject to a study which found interesting results.  This article will discuss the nature of nurse bullying, how nurse bullying should be analyzed within a workers’ compensation setting, and what a nurse should do if they are subjected to stress.

Even If I am not a Nurse, Why Should I Be Concerned about Nurse Bullying?

“Workplace bullying has also been acknowledged as a threat to patient outcomes and the delivery of quality of patient care, as well as the erosion of personal health and professional wellbeing [91314]. Excellence in patient care flourishes in an environment built on open communication and respectful professional relationships. An environment that condones bullying perpetrates destruction of professional communication.”  Gaffney DA, Demarco RF, Hofmeyer A, Vessey JA, Budin WC. Making things right: nurses’ experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory. Nurs Res Pract. 2012;2012:243210. doi:10.1155/2012/243210

What Is Bullying in the Nursing Profession?

Individuals studying bullying characterized the situation as on in which there is a power imbalance.   These interactions can have serious effects on the organization. Yoo, S.Y.; Ahn, H.Y. Nurses’ Workplace Bullying Experiences, Responses, and Ways of Coping. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7052.

Who Was Responsible for the Bullying?

In the study, there are many types of bullying offenders, including patients, caregivers, doctors, and nurses. Of these, bullying most frequently occurs among nurses and is particularly committed by a colleague rather than by a manager. Yoo, S.Y.; Ahn, H.Y. Nurses’ Workplace Bullying Experiences, Responses, and Ways of Coping. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7052.

Note: for workers’ compensation purposes, the employment position of the offender is very important

Bullying has also been defined in other studies.

“Bullying goes by many names: workplace aggression, indirection aggression, social or relational aggression, horizontal (lateral) violence, and workplace violence. It has become so popularized in the press; bullying is often, mistakenly, used as an overarching concept. There is a tendency to use many of these terms interchangeably [8]. Bullying is different from horizontal violence in that a real or perceived power differential between the instigator and recipient must be present [15]. Some of the most recent literature suggests that all of these behaviors exist on a conceptual continuum of workplace victimization [3].” Gaffney DA, Demarco RF, Hofmeyer A, Vessey JA, Budin WC. Making things right: nurses’ experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory. Nurs Res Pract. 2012;2012:243210. doi:10.1155/2012/243210

Is Bullying the Same as Job Stress?

Those researching this have distinguished it from ordinary job stress.  It is something different from the day to day social stresses or poor management.

What Types of Bullying are Going on?

Bullying has been described in situations where the nurse is new to the area,  in situations where the nurse witnesses mistreatment of others, in situations in which they are singled out for public censure or humiliation, in situation in which there are constantly being interrupted, situations in which they are not in the social clique and they are subject to juvenile-like behavior, situations in which they feel they are being punished with disciplinary  action or threats,   Gaffney DA, Demarco RF, Hofmeyer A, Vessey JA, Budin WC. Making things right: nurses’ experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory. Nurs Res Pract. 2012;2012:243210. doi:10.1155/2012/243210

What are the Consequences of Bullying?

Nurses being subjected to bullying is a societal concern.  If this bullying impacts patient medical treatment, it must be addressed in those terms in addition to the health concerns of the Nurse effected.

It is reported that “[n]urses bullied at the workplace may complain of mental symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and fear, as well as physical symptoms, such as fatigue, headaches, and palpitations. They are also more susceptible to burnout and turnover intention and have lower levels of organizational commitment and nursing productivity. Yoo, S.Y.; Ahn, H.Y. Nurses’ Workplace Bullying Experiences, Responses, and Ways of Coping. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7052.

If a Nurse Is Having Medical Problems as a Result of Bullying, What Should They Do?

First, seek medical attention to treat your medical problems.  Second, seek assistance through your company’s Employee Assistance Program if one is available. Third, make a consultation with a lawyer as to whether there is some legal action that can be pursued.

There are two areas of law which should be explored.  Workers’ Compensation and Employment Law are two areas which should be analyzed with respect to the bullying.

If a Workers’ Compensation Claim is pursued, the Nurse can claim monetary compensation in the form of temporary disability benefits, permanent disability benefits, medical care, and vocational rehabilitation benefits.

What Are the Legal Barriers for Workers’ Compensation Psychiatric Claims?

With all psychiatric claims of work injury, a detailed factual analysis must be made.  With respect to bullying, there are issues of length of employment and whether the events causing the stress where personnel actions.  Bullying claims are viewed in the same light as all other psychiatric claims.

Labor Code Section 3208.3 provides the threshold requirements for psychiatric claims.

In general, an employee shall demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that actual events of employment were predominant as to all causes combined of the psychiatric injury.

Also, in general, there is also a six-month employment requirement.

Also, “[n]o compensation under this division shall be paid by an employer for a psychiatric injury if the injury was substantially caused by a lawful, nondiscriminatory, good faith personnel action.”

Note: Bullying can involve different players.   Some of them supervisors. Supervisors’ actions can be viewed as personnel action. Therefore, there may be “good faith personnel action” defenses that insurance Companies can be raise to defeat such a claim. Therefore, there is no guarantee that bullying cases will be accepted as a valid work injury claim.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

 

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