EXERTIONAL HEAT SYNDROME: HEATED WORK ENVIRONMENTS, WORK INJURIES AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Heat Exertion can produce serious injuries in the workplace. The medical condition is commonly known as Exertional Heat Illness (ESI.) Heat Illnesses are multi-causal. Human’s body temperatures can be elevated by a number of factors. First, there is the heat and humidity in the environment. Second, there is the clothing and equipment being used by the worker. Third, there is the nature, extent and the duration of the activities.

This article is focused towards the Heat Exertion as opposed to the Heat Exposure. Note: Heat Exertional Illness is a huge concern for military. Thus, this matter has been studied within that context. Heat Exertion is a concern for all military personnel. Even Military Working Dogs have been studied. Predicting military working dog core temperature during exertional heat strain: Validation of a Canine Thermal Model Catherine O’Brien William J.Tharion Anthony J.Karis Heather M.Sullivan https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102603Get rights and content

In the civilian setting, there are also various occupations that involve serious issues that can bring rise to heat exertional illness.

This article will discuss Heat Exertion Illness, risk factors involved with HEI, the nature and extent of injuries arising from heat exertion, and how it can be addressed within a workers’ compensation setting.

What Is Exertional Heat Illness (EHI)?

Exertional Heat illnesses (EHI) is essentially a variety of medical conditions that may occur during physical exertion that is performed in hot and humid environments. This can be the case when there is performance of strenuous physical activities for extended durations in hot environments.

In the civilian workforce, HEI may impact occupations such as Agriculture, Construction Workers, Police Officers, and Refinery Workers.

For instance, with respect to Wildland Fire Fighters, a study noted the nature and extent of the clothing and equipment that they carry. The study noted that “WLFFs wear standard fire equipment: Nomex long-sleeve shirt and pants, mid-calf leather logger boots, a 100% cotton short-sleeve undershirt, leather gloves, hard hat, and a 12 to 20 kg pack containing food, water, safety gear, and work tools.” High Work Output Combined With High Ambient Temperatures Caused Heat Exhaustion in a Wildland Firefighter Despite High Fluid Intake John S.Cuddy MS Brent C. Ruby PhD https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2011.01.008

Why is EHI a Serious Concern?

Due to the fact that EHI can cause a variety of medical conditions, there is also a wide range of medical problems that EHI can cause.

Mild forms of EHI can include heat cramps. Severe forms of EHI can include heat stroke. Severe EHI can lead to multiorgan damage and death. Alele FO, Malau-Aduli BS, Malau-Aduli AEO, J Crowe M. Epidemiology of Exertional Heat Illness in the Military: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 25;17(19):E7037. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197037. PMID: 32993024.

Does Body Temperature Play a Role?

Yes. Body Core Temperature plays a role in the severity of the injury. Temperatures less than 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Farenheit) percent are associated with milder symptoms and temperatures greater than 40 degrees Celsius brought on more serious symptoms which provided central nervous system symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Alele FO, Malau-Aduli BS, Malau-Aduli AEO, J Crowe M. Epidemiology of Exertional Heat Illness in the Military: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 25;17(19):E7037. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197037. PMID: 32993024.

What are the Main Risk Factors in EHI?

There are a variety of risk factors that can impact EHI. The main risk factors in the study were gender, physical fitness, obesity, previous history of heat illness, motivation, hot environmental conditions, and service unit. Alele FO, Malau-Aduli BS, Malau-Aduli AEO, J Crowe M. Epidemiology of Exertional Heat Illness in the Military: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 25;17(19):E7037. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197037. PMID: 32993024.

“[T]these risk factors into three groups—host (individual physiologically limiting), environmental and organizational (training organization) factors. Supra.

Are There Risk Factors of Interest?

Yes.

Females were more likely to experience EHI than males.

High Body Mass Index (BMI) individuals are more likely to experience EHI.

Lower Physical Fitness individuals are more likely to experience EHI.

Over Motivated Individuals are more likely to experience EHI. One reason being is that they may not pace themselves.

A prior history of heat illness makes individuals more susceptible to heat stroke or severe heat illness.

Hot conditions such as summer seasons and in hot weather conditions make individuals at greater risk of EHI.

Some Units, task dependent and equipment dependent groups, can have increased risk of EHI versus other units. . Alele FO, Malau-Aduli BS, Malau-Aduli AEO, J Crowe M. Epidemiology of Exertional Heat Illness in the Military: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 25;17(19):E7037. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197037. PMID: 32993024.

If a Worker is Suffering from a Heat-Related Illness, What Should They Do?

If the Injured Worker was exposed to excessive heat in the workforce, they can consider filing a workers’ compensation claim. This would allow them to claim medical care, monetary benefits in the form of temporary and permanent disability benefits. Also, vocational rehabilitation benefits may be indicated. If a fatality situation, a death claim for the dependents may be indicated.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

BODY ARMOR, WORK INJURIES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: POLICE OFFICERS, SHERIFFS AND INJURIES DUE TO EQUIPMENT: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Law Enforcement Officers are required to carry various items as part of their job duties. Equipment, such as Duty Belts, have been recognized as being damaging to the lumbar spine. Due to that fact, the State of California has enacted a Back Injury Presumption for with respect to Law Enforcement Officers who wear duty belts.

Besides Duty Belts, there is other Law Enforcement equipment that has become implicated as to causing physical injury. One of these items is Body Armor. Body Armor has become popular for Law Enforcement to wear to protect them. Body Armor, however, can be physically restrictive. This restrictiveness can be a source of musculoskeletal injury. It should be noted that this Body Armor can be life saving for officers. Police Officers: Surviving a real life-threatening incident while wearing body armor Xiong, Houawa 2014 May URI: https://scholarworks.csustan.edu/handle/011235813/703 (in thesis data, all 24 officers studied survived life-threatening incidents and were able to to return to full duty after the incidents.)

This article will discuss Law Enforcement Officers’ use of Body Armor, the problems with respect to such equipment, and whether it has been found to cause physical problems.

What Is Body Armor?

There are different types of body armor. There is body amor that is designed for military use. Also, there is a different body armor that is designed with respect to Law Enforcement. This different body armor is called Light Armor. The armors of the light variety care called Individual Light Armor Vests or ILAVs.

Are There Any Studies Concerning Light Armor Vests?

Yes. A recent study compared ILVAs versus Normal Station Wear.

What are the Problems with Light Body Armor?

“Wearing body armour has also been found to compromise trunk posture (Phillips et al., 2016) and reduce range of motion in multiple planes (Lenton et al., 2016). Axial trunk rotation has been shown to be reduced by up to 12° when wearing military-styled body armour (Lenton et al., 2016). A generalized increase in trunk and hip forward flexion during tasks has also been associated with wearing body armour (Lenton et al., 2016; Phillips et al., 2015). The effects of both a forward trunk posture and any compromise in trunk or shoulder mobility may further affect an officer’s ability to compensate for any balance compromise and put them at greater risk of falls and subsequent injury (Dempsey et al., 2013).” The effects of body armour on mobility and postural control of police officers Ben Schram Robin Orr Ben Hinton Geoff Norris Rodney Pope https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.03.001

What Were The Findings of the Study?

The study found “[s]ignificant differences were found between ILAV or N conditions in various components of the FMS, including right Straight Leg Raise, left shoulder mobility, and both right and left quad rotary stability. No significant differences were found in any of the balance measures between these conditions.” Supra.

The conclusions made were that the “ILAVs can significantly affect police officer mobility and therefore may contribute to injury risk and decreased ability to complete occupational tasks, though this should be weighed against protective benefits. ILAVs should therefore be carefully selected to minimise injury risk without detracting from occupational performance.” Supra. [emphasis added]

Are There Any Issues of Controversy with Respect to Body Armor?

Yes. One matter that can become an issue with respect Body Armor is the fact that there are multiple types of body armor which have different styles. There was a study that compared different ILAV and found that there were differences in the comfort and performance. The perceived effects and comfort of various body armour systems on police officers while performing occupational tasks B. Schram1* , B. Hinton2 , R. Orr , R. Pope and G. Norris Schram et al. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2018) 30:15 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-018-0228-x.

In sum, there are different brands that may have different impacts on the officers wearing them.

What Does Caselaw Say with Respect to Body Armor?

A search review was done with respect to this article. As the writing of this article, there have been no reported cases concerning injury related to the use of body armor. This caselaw search does not reveal as to whether such claims have been made and have been accepted as legitimate injury claims. Rather, the search indicates that there has been no controversy to the point that there has been any noteworthy or reported litigation involving body armor.

What Is the Future?

Many Law Enforcement Departments have received grants and funds to provide body armor to their departments. As a result, there will be more increased use of body armor. This increased use may likely cause musculoskeletal problems which may give rise to a physical injury. This type of physical injury would be the basis for filing a workers’ compensation claim.

What if I Need Advice?

If you would like a free consultation regarding workers’ compensation, please contact the Law Offices of Edward J. Singer, a Professional Law Corporation. We have been helping people in Central and Southern California deal with their workers’ compensation cases for 27 years. Contact us today for more information.

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